Handbook of lasers
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Ships to San Leandro, Davis St. Product Highlights Here is the ideal tool to understand the use of lasers in clinical practice. It covers such topics as vascular lesions, warts, acne, scars, and pigmented lesions, as well as examines laser and light technologies available for skin resurfacing and rejuvenation. About This Item We aim to show you accurate product information. Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. See our disclaimer. This book discusses lasers and light technologies in dermatology.
The innovation is due to the book format: a handbook. It is the first handbook of lasers in dermatology, facilitating access to information to all individuals interested in lasers in this specific medical field. The most recent lasers devices and its applications will be discussed.
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Illustrations and tables will make the book didactic and comprehensive. Lasers in dermatology are a constantly evolving field. Over the past few decades, novel devices have been developed and new indications for their use have emerged. A broad understanding of the relationship between science and laser principles is the foundation of a solid dermatologic practice.
The Lasers in Dermatology Handbook is a tool to understand the use of lasers in clinical practice. Important topics such as vascular lesions, warts, acne, scars, and pigmented lesions are presented and discussed in all aspects.
The wide spectrum of laser and light technologies available for skin resurfacing and rejuvenation will be covered as well. Written by internationally renowned authors, this handbook serves as a cornerstone for laser applications and provides updated information for all physicians, particularly dermatologists, interested in implementing lasers in their practice.
Specifications Publisher Springer London. Customer Reviews. Write a review. See any care plans, options and policies that may be associated with this product. Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. Both use crystals where an applied electric field produces some perturbation of the optical properties of the crystal. In the case of acousto-optical modulators, the applied electric field is a radio-frequency voltage that produces a high-frequency sound wave in the crystal.
This sound wave diffracts the photons from the laser and prevents laser amplification. EOMs instead use an applied high voltage that modifies the crystal refractive index and alters the polarization of the incoming light; an appropriate combination of polarization-sensitive optics can be placed in the cavity to prevent light of altered polarization from circulating.
Ti:sapphire lasers can also produce nanosecond pulses if they are pumped with a nanosecond pulse of green light produced by a frequency-doubled, Q-switched YAG laser. This method is called gain switching because the cavity gain rather than the cavity loss is directly changed.
Apart from a huge number of industrial applications, Q-switched lasers have important applications in scientific research. These lasers are often used with nonlinear optical generators that can produce tunable wavelengths in the UV, visible and IR region, enabling time- and wavelength-resolved studies. For some scientific applications, it may be desirable to have a narrow-linewidth Q-switched laser. If a laser is able to oscillate in many longitudinal modes, such short pulses can be produced with the so-called mode-locking technique.
With this technique, the modes are locked in phase mode-locking regime and their coherent interference causes the intracavity optical field to collapse into a single pulse traveling back and forth in the laser cavity. Every time the pulse reaches the output mirror, part of it is coupled out and available. Physics shows that the more modes that interfere, the shorter the pulse duration Figure 7. Since larger lasing bandwidths support a larger number of oscillating modes, the pulse duration is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of the laser gain material.
In the absence of dispersion, these pulses are time-bandwidth limited, i. Ultrafast pulses are highly useful in research; thanks to the short pulse duration and high peak power, the advent of femtosecond lasers in the s enabled groundbreaking research leading to Nobel prizes for femtochemistry pump-probe spectroscopy and optical comb generation. Femtosecond lasers have also enabled multiphoton excitation MPE techniques that deliver three-dimensional imaging of live tissue. MPE is now widely used in several areas of biological research, most notably neuroscience.
Pulse amplification usually requires a reduction in repetition rate, so a pulse-picker selects the oscillator pulses to be amplified in one or more amplifier stages. In the case of femtosecond lasers, the high peak power of the amplified pulses can damage the laser optics. For this reason, the amplification is usually preceded by stretching the pulse chirping to 50 to ps.
The amplified pulse is then re-compressed to the fs domain. This is commonly referred to as chirped pulse amplification, or CPA. In scientific research, amplified ultrafast pulses are used for a wide array of applications. These include photochemistry, pump-probe spectroscopy, terahertz THz generation and creating accelerated electrons and other small charged particles. The pulses can also drive nonlinear generation of extreme-UV light with pulse widths of tens of attoseconds. Examples include thin-film patterning in the production of flat panel displays.
Handbook of Solid-State Lasers
Ultrafast lasers are also increasingly used to cut the toughened glass for touchscreens, using a process called filamentation cutting that cannot be performed with other lasers. This method produces unmatched edge quality and can create curved shapes and cutouts. Until recently, scientific ultrafast lasers have mainly relied on titanium:sapphire Ti:sapphire because of its large bandwidth and broad tuning range; turnkey commercial Ti:sapphire lasers can deliver pulses as short as 6 fs.
Ti:sapphire lasers are typically pumped using a green-wavelength CW pump laser. Typical repetition rates of Ti:sapphire oscillators are 50 to MHz, and peak powers as high as several hundred kilowatts. The most common CPA systems based on Ti:sapphire operate at 1 to 10 kHz with the amplifier stages energized by nanosecond green lasers. Custom CPA systems based on Ti:sapphire can produce even petawatt peak powers. Industrial ultrafast lasers typically need high repetition rates and high power in order to sustain economically viable throughput in the application.
These lasers and amplifiers are well-proven to provide the requisite combination of power and industrial reliability.
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However, the smaller the gain bandwidth of Nd means that they are limited to the ps regime. Figure 7. An example is the Monaco series of one-box amplifiers from Coherent. Yb-doped materials combine to some extent the advantages of Ti:sapphire scientific lasers and Nd-based industrial lasers. For scientific research, the gain bandwidth of Yb means oscillator pulses can be as short as 50 fs, which is more than adequate for many applications, particularly in MPE microscopy. Unlike Ti:sapphire, Yb can be directly diode-pumped and used in a fiber format, enabling more scalable performance than bulk gain materials that are often limited by cooling and thermal lensing issues.
When used to pump optical parametric devices, the resulting output is fully tunable from UV to mid-IR wavelengths, providing advantages for applications such as spectroscopy of advanced materials, or functional biological imaging. For industrial applications, the main attraction of Yb-fiber amplifiers is the combination of high peak power and high average power in the femtosecond regime, unlike Nd systems with picosecond pulse widths.
Femtosecond laser pulses have two advantages over picosecond pulses for materials processing.
Handbook of Lasers - Marvin J. Weber - Google книги
First, the material interaction involves many simultaneous photons and becomes reasonably wavelength insensitive, unlike with nanosecond linear absorption. Second, the short pulses and nonlinear interaction means that fs pulses can deliver even better edge quality and precision than ps pulses. As a result, Yb-fiber amplifiers are rapidly finding applications in micromachining of mixed layered substrates e.
Frequency doubling and harmonic generation Even with the broad choice of commercially available lasers, it is not always possible to find one that exactly matches the wavelength required by a specific application. Ti:sapphire lasers are broadly tunable, but in most cases, they are too complex for industrial applications and unable to reach the all-important UV region of the spectrum. OPSLs are simple and can be designed at many wavelengths in the to nm region but are not ideal for pulsed operation.
To achieve the desired wavelength in just about any regime of operation — CW, pulsed, or ultrafast — the processes of harmonic frequency conversion and parametric generation provide wavelength flexibility when used in conjunction with the lasers described so far. All these processes are related and are called nonlinear phenomena since they depend nonlinearly on the laser peak power. That is, they are proportional to the square, third, or higher power of the laser output power. One of these mechanisms distorts the electron cloud in the crystal, thereby polarizing the atoms at a frequency that is the same as that of the laser beam, but also at a frequency that is its double nonlinear polarization.
This frequency corresponds to a wavelength that is half that of the incoming laser. The nonlinear polarization is much smaller than the linear term, but it depends on the square of the laser power, therefore increasing more strongly in the presence of an intense laser pulse. It generates an optical field at double the frequency of the original laser beam, with the result that part of the incoming laser power will be converted to half the original wavelength second-harmonic generation SHG or frequency doubling Figure 9.
Since energy has to be conserved, any gain in the SHG beam is traded for a decrease in power of the original beam. The most common example of SHG is the conversion of a Nd-based laser IR output at nm into a green output at nm green , constituting the most popular visible wavelength, used ubiquitously to pump Ti:sapphire lasers. Nano-, pico-, and femtosecond OPOs are complex devices that are implemented in conjunction with pulsed and ultrafast pump lasers.
CW OPOs are equally, if not more, complex.
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OPAs are easier to design and build but require a more energetic pump to produce the white light and one-pass amplification in the crystal. For this reason, they are pumped by CPA pico- or femtosecond amplifiers producing at least several microjoules. These low-power lasers a few milliwatts use an electric discharge to create a low-pressure plasma in a glass tube; nearly all emit in the red at nm.
In recent years, the majority of HeNe applications have switched to visible laser diodes. Typical applications include bar-code readers, alignment tasks in the construction and lumber industries, and a host of sighting and pointing applications ranging from medical surgery to high-energy physics. In fact, the laser diode has become by far the most common laser type, with truly massive use throughout telecommunications and data storage e.